Copy disk over network using SSH

There can be use cases where you want to get a block level copy of your servers drives either for backup/archival purposes, or maybe you need it for forensic analysis. For both use cases, how can you perform a block level copy of your drives when you don’t have enough storage space on your server to store it?

This is where dd and ssh come into play. You can perform a block level copy of your disks using dd, and then use ssh inline to transfer it over to your remote workstation.

Things to keep in mind, when you perform a dd copy, it will copy the full disk over, this includes both used and unused space. So if you have 2 drives, one is a 1.5T drive, and the other in a 500G drive, you will need a total of 2T of space on your workstation, or where ever the images are being copied to.

In a perfect world, the drives should be unmounted, or if you are copying over the / partition, the server should be in rescue mode. However, dd can be performed live if you like as long as your not concerned about dynamic data like your databases being corrupted on the destination image.

The first step here is to determine which partitions you want to copy over. You find this by checking df on the server:

[[email protected] ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
                       14G  1.4G   12G  11% /
tmpfs                 939M     0  939M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1             477M   99M  353M  22% /boot
/dev/sdb1             2.0G  3.1M  1.9G   1% /mnt

In this example, I want to copy both my / partition, and my /mnt drive.

The commands are meant to be run on the destination server or workstation where you will be storing these images. Do not try to run these on the origin server!

[[email protected] ~]# ssh [email protected] "dd if=/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root " | dd of=
[[email protected] ~]# ssh [email protected] "dd if=/dev/sdb1 " | dd of=

Depending on how large the drives are, and what your network latency is like, this could take a very long time to complete.

Once the process is completed, your can verify the image by mounting the image on your destination server by using a loop back image:

[[email protected] ~]# mkdir -p /mnt/server/disk1
[[email protected] ~]# mkdir -p /mnt/server/disk2
[[email protected] ~]# mount -o loop /mnt/server/disk1
[[email protected] ~]# mount -o loop /mnt/server/disk2
[[email protected] ~]# ls /mnt/server/disk1
[[email protected] ~]# ls /mnt/server/disk2

And once you confirmed the disk image looks good, unmount the loop back device by running:

[[email protected] ~]# umount /mnt/server/disk1
[[email protected] ~]# umount /mnt/server/disk2

Basic Apache Hardening

Below are a couple of the more common best practices that should be used when hardening Apache. These are simply some basics for mitigating a few of the more common CVE’s that have been cropping up in Apache.

At the very minimum, disable the trace method and prevent information disclosure by updating the ServerToken and ServerSignature variables. This can be done within Apache by modifying the following file:

# CentOS 5 and 6
vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/security.conf

# Ubuntu 12.04
vim /etc/apache2/conf.d/security

Then set it accordingly as shown below:

# Disable access to the entire file system except for the directories that
# are explicitly allowed later.
# This currently breaks the configurations that come with some web application
# Debian packages. It will be made the default for the release after lenny.
#<Directory />
#       AllowOverride None
#       Order Deny,Allow
#       Deny from all

# Changing the following options will not really affect the security of the
# server, but might make attacks slightly more difficult in some cases.

# ServerTokens
# This directive configures what you return as the Server HTTP response
# Header. The default is 'Full' which sends information about the OS-Type
# and compiled in modules.
# Set to one of:  Full | OS | Minimal | Minor | Major | Prod
# where Full conveys the most information, and Prod the least.
ServerTokens Prod 

# Optionally add a line containing the server version and virtual host
# name to server-generated pages (internal error documents, FTP directory
# listings, mod_status and mod_info output etc., but not CGI generated
# documents or custom error documents).
# Set to "EMail" to also include a mailto: link to the ServerAdmin.
# Set to one of:  On | Off | EMail
ServerSignature Off 

# Allow TRACE method
# Set to "extended" to also reflect the request body (only for testing and
# diagnostic purposes).
# Set to one of:  On | Off | extended
TraceEnable Off

Another common area to lock down further from the vendor defaults is the SSL configuration, which is located in:

# CentOS 5 and 6
vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf

# Ubuntu 12.04
vim /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/ssl.conf

The most common ones I see on security reports are:
Set SSLHonorCipherOrder to ‘on’
Restrict the allowed ciphers in SSLCipherSuite
Enable only secure protocols

The ciphers can be a bit tricky, especially if you have a WAF or IDS in front of your solution. There is not a one size fits all here, so please be sure to test your site after making these changes as they can cause you problems if set incorrectly for your solution. I’ll post some scenarios below.

For securing your ssl.conf against many of the current vulnerabilities posted at the time of this writing, disable TLSv1.0 which will be a requirement come June 2018, and enable forward security, you can use:

SSLProtocol -ALL +TLSv1.1 +TLSv1.2
SSLHonorCipherOrder On

If you prefer to leave TLSv1.0 enabled for the time being as you still have clients connecting to your site with unsupported browsers from Windows XP that doesn’t support anything above TLSv1.0, then you can try the following:

SSLCipherSuite ALL:!EXP:!NULL:!ADH:!LOW:!SSLv3:!SSLv2:!MD5:!RC4:!DSS:!3DES
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3
SSLHonorCipherOrder On

If you have an Imperva WAF or Alertlogic IDS in front your solution that needs to decrypt the SSL traffic for analysis, so you therefore can’t use forward security since they need to perform a man-in-the-middle on the traffic, but still want to disable insecure ciphers, then modify the variables in the ssl.conf as follows:

SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3
SSLHonorCipherOrder On

As a final note, Mozilla also put out a config generator for this. It can just provide some additional view points of how you can go about the ciphers. The link is here.